I am Masingita Lizzy Maluleke.I did Bachelor degree of Enviremental Sciences at the University of Venda for science and technology majored with Geography and Ecology and Resourse Managenment.I am presantly doing honours with the university of the Western Cape in Ecological Informatics.

Friday, April 21, 2006


There was an argument between the Scientists about the Apollo moon landing. Some of the scientists believed that NASA fakes this moon landing, they never landed on the moon and they did not return with enough evidence from the moon, they return with the rocks. Other scientists believed that astronauts did land on the moon and they return with the evidence of rocks from the moon.

According to Bill Kaysing, astronauts did not landed on the moon, they fake their video about landed on the moon. Bill has all the evidence which include the taken pictures during their journey to the moon. Something was missing from their photos. This proved them that astronauts never land on the moon because the star was missing from their photos. Another evidence that Bill have included engineering details and what the confirmed during their interview (Fox TV, 2001).

The other picture that was taken by an astronauts is that there was a lunar dust blown away by the rocket when the astronauts jumping from one place to another on the moon. It was said that on the moon there is no force of gravity; air is the only thing that can helped the dust to blow away. It was said that all the pictures taken from the moon were always perfect meaning that they were clear and they interviewed the person who designed the camera of an astronauts that, why the photos were all clear? He said that he did not have the answer and he finally agreed that it was a hoax and NASA fake the mission. Some astronauts were asked why the stars are missing at their pictures. They said that it is impossible for a camera to view every thing, every where, so camera can not take every thing (Fox TV, 2001).

There was another picture which shows the flag of the United States planted by the astronauts on the moon. The flag of the United States was waving, so there is no way that the flag can wave without air and it was said that there is no air on the moon. Some astronauts believed that not all the time the flag can be waved by air in the space. Astronauts also said that flag waved when they planted the flag pole because they rotate it back and forth to better penetrate the lunar soil and it is possible for the flag to wave in a vacuum (The Great Moon Hoax, 2001)

According to the Dr David McKay who was the lunar sample laboratory facility at the NASA’s Johnson Space Centre (JSC) said that many astronauts walked on the moon between 1969 and 1972 and some of the astronauts died on their way to the moon, only nine are still alive and they return from the moon with the 841 pound of the moon rocks which were different from an Earth rocks. The different between the rocks from moon and the earth is that, the rocks from the earth do not have water, and the rocks from the moon have trapped water. Dr Marc Norman said that they found a fresh glass in the moon rocks produced by explosive volcanic and meteorit impact about 3 billion years ago (The Great Moon Hoax, 2001).

Ralph Rene said that no one landed on the moon, NASA fake the whole thing about moon landing. It provided by having difference evidence between a defect and major technical problem. Rene said that early Apollo flights tested mission share out buds in hardware and procedure, the moon landing were far from flawless (Did we land on the moon, 2001).

I am 90 % certain that no man landed on the moon, all was a fake. Apollo 1 to 10 are the once who tried to go to the moon but unfortunately they did not came back on Earth, they died during their journey because of the solar radiation. Apollo 11 to 17 claimed that they landed on the moon but they refused to swear to God that they landed on the moon, they just run away. The astronauts took 9 hours to go to the moon which was impossible and it said that the journey to the moon took three days. I am 89 % certain that no spacecraft landed on the moon. This is because the Apollo pictures were not having the stars. The star can be seen only when there is a sun and it means the sky will be black. I concluded that no one landed on the moon and one of the astronauts said that if they can not make it, they have to fake it. So they did fake landed on moon.


FOX special at Phil Plait’s Bad Astronomy (2001),,
[Accessed on 2006-04-21:12h00]

The Great Moon Hoax (2001),,
[Accessed on 2006-04-21:13h00]

Did we land on the moon?,
[Access on 2006-04-21:14h00]

Thursday, April 13, 2006



Hominids appeared in the planet about 3.5 million year ago. Radiometic dating indicates that hominids are first appeared in the planet. Scientist believed that hominids selected specific materials to make their tools. A large quartzite cobbles which are harder are the good rocks that were used to made tools because they are harder to work. According to the scientists, the earliest stone tool appeared in the fossil recorded around 2.6 million years ago. These tools were used for cutting and scraping as well as killing other animals. There are different types of stone technologies. Namely: Oldowan, Acheulean, Mousterian assembly and the early Perigordian and Avrigncian industries. The scientists suggested that the tool that was used by the earliest hominids were found at these industries. The following different types of stones toolmakings such as; flakes; cores; Acheulian; and oldowan tools were used by early human ancestors to kill other animals. The scientists did not agree about who was the earliest toolmaker. They were not so sure which one was the first toolmaker. Darwin suggest that hominids who had freed up hands and walked in two feet would be able to used tools because many of them were a meat eater. They were feeding themselves by hunting and killing other animals. Benjamin Frackin believed that man was the toolmaker. Human was walking with two feet and was a master hunters, it was easy for them to run after their pray. Human also made tools in order to protect themselves from being killed by their enemy such as lions etc. Sileshi Seman said that he found the world’s earliest stone tool about 2.5 million year ago at north of middle Awash at Gona area. Seman and his colloquies were not so sure who made these earliest toolmaker, they believed that human ancestors made these tools. They identify Australopithecus garhi as a best toolmaker. Louis Leakey believed that the origin of Homo related to the development of toolmaking such as stone tools. Leakey also believed that stone tools found at the Olduvia Gorge belong to the Homo habilis. H. habilis was the first Homo and it was named “the name with ability”.

Wednesday, April 12, 2006


The universe theory still remains the disputes issue and the scientists explained how this scientific theories works. The scientists explain all different forces and how they worked. Different scientists explain about their findings and how the universe functions. Scientists who have formulated formulae explained the interactions of forces in different planet of the elegent universe and the scientists who formulated this are Albert Estein, Isaac Newton, and Niels Bohr. Four forces such as gravity, nuclear, electromagnetism and weak force were explained on how universe functions. Scientists try to combine all of the four forces together and they have an idea how this universe work.

Albert Estein believes that everything in the Universe is made up of the strings, and it is said that these strings vibrate in order to make all the constituents of nature and is where the string theory began. At the age of 26, Isaac Newton, came up with his three laws, and said that there is a pulling force and pushing force. According to Newton, the force of gravity pulls all the particles towards the centre of the Earth. Newton explain by giving an example of an apple which was falling down from the tree, and were falling because of the two forces acting on the apple, the push and the pulling forces.

According to Green, Isaac Newton said that there is nothing that can go faster than the speed of the light, because the speed of the light is about 3*108m/s. Green also said that if light travels in such a high speed, gravitational disturbance will form the waves. How fast gravity travels led to the formulation of the general relativity. Maxwell comes up with the theory of Electromagnetic force which combined electricity and magnet. Maxwell also said that when the light is moving, it creates dots and dash. Gravity; electromagnetism and string were combined to form one equation. According to Amanda, Niel’s Bohr did not agree with Newton and Estein in that the universe behaves in a predictable way. Bohr says that elements consist of the smallest particles called atoms and Bohr came up the theory of quantum mechanics which predicts the chance about how the universe how works.

Scientists discovered that gravity and electromagnetism, nuclear and weak force are forces which describe how the world works. In 1933, Michael Green explains the theory of quantum mechanics theory; the Universe is formed as a result of the big bang some 14billion years ago. As a result the Universe gets small.

The issue of how the Universe works still remains disputes. This is because different scientists try to unify different questions in describing how the universe functions without reaching the final conclusion. Scientists were also disagreeing with each other about the functioning of the Universe.
g how the universe functions without reaching the final conclusion. Scientists were also disagreeing with each other about the functioning of the Universe.

Tuesday, April 11, 2006

Daily Report
By Lizzy

On the 10th of April 2006 I typed my project about power point presantation.After some few hours, we had a meeting with Althea concerning with our qualifications. After the meeting we went back to our office and I continued with my prject.At 14:00 I went to one the CSIR offices with my colleques, we were supposed to watched and listen to the video that we were told to.We had a problem with the video, It was not showing the pictures only the sound was comming out.So we decided to watch it the following day.Thereafter, I continued with my project.

Friday, April 07, 2006

Our tour to Sterkfontain

On Thursday 23rd I and my team went to the Sterkfontain cave and we went with Althea. Sterkfontain cave is a very nice place and it is located at Krugersdorp. It is donated to the University of Witwatersrand by the Stegmann family. At sterkfontain cave we were with the tourist guider by the name of Rufus Mokwena and also other group of 4 (four) people. Rufus firstly gave us the rules for the Sterkfontain cave and also told us to stay close to each other. Rufus explain each and every species that we came across.

We observed the gabbros and on each it written different types of species such as Coelacanth fossil fish, Lystro sourus which was the mammal-like reptile and Thrinaxodon was also a mammal-like reptile, Dinosaurs birds called Euparkeria, Pangaea, Massospondylus which was South African dinosaur and it was an ancestor of Ostrich and on each of the species it written a year when it found.

We also observed the gabbros of the foot of the Australopithecus from Sterkfontain cave which was 3.3 million years old. It was 4 feet tall. We observed Lommon an ancestor of Homo, Mrs Ples which was Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontain was 2.6 million years old. We also observed gabbros of Homo sapiens from Africa rock art and Eland Taurotragus from South African rock art etc.

Underground cave

Rufus told us that the main entrance of the cave is the man made and the other part is natural. There was a steps down at the entrance which was also man made and the electricity was there to provide light for us and Rufus was also having torch. There are many pathways inside the cave going to the different directions. Thanks God because we were with the tourist guider and he knew the place very well. We trusted him believing that he will shows us the way out from the cave after every thing.

In side the cave we watched the video presentation about the story of little foot which did not saw the fossilised remains because of the darkness of place where they put the little foot. Rufus confirmed that the skeleton was there and it was 3.5 million year old. The presentation was done by Professor Ron C lark.

At the central cave we observed the dolomites rocks in a shape of an elephant and also looked like an African map. The shapes were lovely and beautiful. The dolomites were covered by the stele tight, at the lowest part; it was 16m below the surface we observed the stalactite clear water and we were told that inside the water only shrines are found there and they are blind. It was also the habit for bats. The underground cave is very beautiful but it is also a scaring place. On our way out from the cave we also observed the stature of Dr Robert Broom carried the fossil skull of Mrs Ples.

Museum or hominid exhibition hall

We also went to the museum and we observed different types of hominids fossil, skulls, teeth, bones and stones that were found long time ago and on each fossil was written the year that it lived. The different pictures of earliest hominids, modern human, chimpanzees and gorillas etc were there and it was interesting.

I learned that I have to trust and listen to others and this is very important .We listen to Rufus and trust him during our tour. We believed that he will take us to underground and bring us back safely and did it; we were safe no one get injured. I learned to work as a team. Where ever we went, we were in group as we were told to be together all the time.
By Lizzy

Dr Bob Scholes presentations


Dr Bob Scholes is one of the members of the South African Environment Observation Network (SAEON) technical panel. He also leads the ecosystem processes and dynamic research group at the CSIR which is about global climate change, biogeochemistry, ecosystem dynamics of savannas and earth observation systems. Dr Scholes is a very intelligent man, he also gifted and he was a very good presenter. His presentations were about “the value and philosophy of the long-term earth observation science”.

The changing face of the research

Dr Scholes explained about the changing face of the science. He explained about three types of pillar land scape, which are research, observation and assessment. He said that the scientists need to do a research, observation which also goes together with assessments well as social needs. All these pillars are very much important for the scientist.

Social need

Dr Scholes also said that it impossible to observe everything, everywhere all the time. So you do not want have to observe everything, everywhere all the time. He also said that you have to sample the information cube sparsely and you have to organise yourself hierachically. .We was told that we have to measure many things at a small place and we can measure a few things at a lot of site. He said that you have to use models to interpolate the entire information volume meaning that every observation is a model.


Dr Scholes also presented about an Interoperability which is the long word for standards. He said that a lot of Interoperability is a computer communication protocol, and data base structure convention for example XML (ABCD) Darwin core etc.


Dr Scholes presented about a metadata and he said that many people need to know but they are afraid to ask He said that part of your scientific have a responsibility. If we need to know something we do not have to ask so that we can know better and learn more.

Sharing data

This was his last presentations and he explained about the collected data on the public. Dr Scholes said that the unused data is valueless and if got the money, it does not belong to you. He also said that the default case is a public domain and there is a restricted access needed. He said that you are given a limited period such as 3 months and this is for NASA and 2-3 years is for the Msc and PhD. A researcher needs to make his/her data available and intelligible. He said that the acknowledge data that you use must have the reference and co-authorship.


The presentation was good. The aims was to encourage students to align their research with SAEON‘s programmes. It was also to stimulate and promote interactions among graduate students and senior scientists, within the realm of long-term environmental research. Another aim was to provide a network in which graduate students can feel comfortable to share ideas, to collaborate with one another and to get a broader understanding of ecological research with an expanded context in which to view their own research. The last aim was to inform graduate students of career opportunities as they become available.